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Views Read Edit View history. German History. Hoover Digest. Hoover Institution. Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 14 August The Economist US.
Archived from the original on 10 May Medicine and the War. Influenza Report. Flying Publisher. Retrieved 17 November Wiener klinische Wochenschrift , 10 May , — Die Encephalitis lethargica.
Leipzig and Vienna, Franz Deuticke, Encyclopaedia Judaica. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Idea Journal of Social Issues.
German Artillery of World War One. Crowood Press. Da Capo Press. Retrieved 21 April Routledge, p. History Press Limited. The National Archives.
Mises Institute. The Economic History Review. New York: Oxford University Press. American Journal of Public Health.
Little, Brown and Company. Retrieved 20 June University of Washington Press. Clarendon Press. Hank 24 August Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 2nd ed.
CRC Press. Ambassador Mogenthau's story. Brigham Young University. Czech Republic: Panorama. Archived from the original on 6 October London: Taderon Press for the Gomidas Institute.
Archived from the original PDF on 22 April Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press. Journal of Genocide Research. American Folklife Center, Library of Congress.
Retrieved 23 May Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 13 March British National Archives. Retrieved 10 March Stolen Years: Australian Prisoners of War.
Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 15 June Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press.
Retrieved 28 February LIT Verlag Münster. A history. Modern Italy; A Political History. In Hubert Jedin; John Dolan eds. History of the Church.
The Church in the industrial age. Translated by Resch, Margit. By Donald Christopher Smith. Edited by John William Cox, Jr.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Russian Revolution. Knopf Doubleday. Italy from Liberalism to Fascism: to Michigan State University.
Historical Journal. Parliament of Australia. New York: The Free Press. A People's History of the United States.
Harper Collins. Catastrophe: Europe goes to War London: Collins. Diplomatic History of the First World War. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Scott, James Brown ed. Washington, D. Collingwood An Autobiography , , p. Bibcode : Natur. Archived from the original on 9 June France News. Retrieved 3 August London: I.
A war imagined: the First World War and English culture. The Great War and modern memory. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 May In Obermair, Hannes ed.
Regionale Zivilgesellschaft in Bewegung — Cittadini innanzi tutto. Festschrift für Hans Heiss. Vienna-Bozen: Folio Verlag.
Retrieved 12 November Genocide: a history. Pearson Education. Daily Express. Abingdon, England: Routledge. The Weimar Republic Sourcebook.
University of California Press. London: Penguin. The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 March Retrieved 1 July For a comprehensive bibliography, see Bibliography of World War I.
Sources Axelrod, Alan Ayers, Leonard Porter Government Printing Office. Bade, Klaus J. Migration in European History.
The making of Europe. Oxford: Blackwell. The past and future of a right-wing myth". Harper's Magazine. Bass, Gary Jonathan Blair, Dale Charnwood, Australia: Ginninderra Press.
Brands, Henry William New York: Basic Books. Braybon, Gail Berghahn Books. Brown, Judith M. Chickering, Rodger Imperial Germany and the Great War, — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clark, Charles Upson Bessarabia, Russia and Roumania on the Black Sea. New York: Dodd, Mead. Clark, Christopher Cockfield, Jamie H.
Palgrave Macmillan. Conlon, Joseph M. The historical impact of epidemic typhus PDF. Montana State University. Archived from the original PDF on 11 June Cook, Tim The Journal of Military History.
Cross, Wilbur L. Zeppelins of World War I. New York: Paragon Press. Crowe, David Grab your tennis ball launcher and defend your raft by knocking enemies off of their perch.
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The collapse of the Central Powers came swiftly. Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice, the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September On 24 October, the Italians began a push that rapidly recovered territory lost after the Battle of Caporetto.
This culminated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force.
The offensive also triggered the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the last week of October, declarations of independence were made in Budapest, Prague, and Zagreb.
On 29 October, the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice, but the Italians continued advancing, reaching Trento, Udine, and Trieste.
The terms, arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, were communicated to the Austrian commander and accepted.
Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg Monarchy. In the following days the Italian Army occupied Innsbruck and all Tyrol with over 20, soldiers.
During the six hours between the signing of the armistice and its taking effect, opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions, but fighting continued along many areas of the front, as commanders wanted to capture territory before the war ended.
The occupation of the Rhineland took place following the Armistice. The occupying armies consisted of American, Belgian, British and French forces.
In November , the Allies had ample supplies of men and materiel to invade Germany. These factors enabled Hindenburg and other senior German leaders to spread the story that their armies had not really been defeated.
This resulted in the stab-in-the-back legend ,   which attributed Germany's defeat not to its inability to continue fighting even though up to a million soldiers were suffering from the flu pandemic and unfit to fight , but to the public's failure to respond to its "patriotic calling" and the supposed intentional sabotage of the war effort, particularly by Jews, Socialists, and Bolsheviks.
The Allies had much more potential wealth they could spend on the war. In the aftermath of the war, four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian.
Numerous nations regained their former independence, and new ones were created. Four dynasties, together with their ancillary aristocracies, fell as a result of the war: the Romanovs , the Hohenzollerns , the Habsburgs , and the Ottomans.
Belgium and Serbia were badly damaged, as was France, with 1. Germany and Russia were similarly affected. A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months, until the signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June However, the negotiation of the treaty with the Ottoman Empire was followed by strife, and a final peace treaty between the Allied Powers and the country that would shortly become the Republic of Turkey was not signed until 24 July , at Lausanne.
Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles Treaty was signed in , which was when many of the troops serving abroad finally returned home; by contrast, most commemorations of the war's end concentrate on the armistice of 11 November Under its terms, the Allied forces left Constantinople on 23 August After the war, the Paris Peace Conference imposed a series of peace treaties on the Central Powers officially ending the war.
The Treaty of Versailles dealt with Germany and, building on Wilson's 14th point , brought into being the League of Nations on 28 June The Central Powers had to acknowledge responsibility for "all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by" their aggression.
In the Treaty of Versailles, this statement was Article This article became known as the War Guilt clause as the majority of Germans felt humiliated and resentful.
German historian Hagen Schulze said the Treaty placed Germany "under legal sanctions, deprived of military power, economically ruined, and politically humiliated.
Active denial of war guilt in Germany and German resentment at both reparations and continued Allied occupation of the Rhineland made widespread revision of the meaning and memory of the war problematic.
The legend of the " stab in the back " and the wish to revise the "Versailles diktat", and the belief in an international threat aimed at the elimination of the German nation persisted at the heart of German politics.
Even a man of peace such as [ Gustav ] Stresemann publicly rejected German guilt. As for the Nazis, they waved the banners of domestic treason and international conspiracy in an attempt to galvanise the German nation into a spirit of revenge.
Like a Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany sought to redirect the memory of the war to the benefit of its own policies. Meanwhile, new nations liberated from German rule viewed the treaty as recognition of wrongs committed against small nations by much larger aggressive neighbours.
However, owing to economic difficulties and Germany being the only defeated power with an intact economy, the burden fell largely on Germany.
Austria-Hungary was partitioned into several successor states, including Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia , largely but not entirely along ethnic lines.
Transylvania was shifted from Hungary to Greater Romania. As a result of the Treaty of Trianon , 3. Between and , , Hungarians fled former Hungarian territories attached to Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.
The Russian Empire, which had withdrawn from the war in after the October Revolution, lost much of its western frontier as the newly independent nations of Estonia , Finland , Latvia , Lithuania , and Poland were carved from it.
Romania took control of Bessarabia in April The Ottoman Empire disintegrated, with much of its Levant territory awarded to various Allied powers as protectorates.
The Turkish core in Anatolia was reorganised as the Republic of Turkey. This treaty was never ratified by the Sultan and was rejected by the Turkish National Movement , leading to the victorious Turkish War of Independence and the much less stringent Treaty of Lausanne.
Though by most countries had made peace treaties, Andorra was an exception. Andorra declared war on Germany in August At that time, it had an army of part-time military men, commanded by two officials.
Andorra had a very small population, so it never sent soldiers to the battlefield. Andorra was therefore not allowed to attend the Treaty of Versailles.
The country finally concluded a peace treaty with Germany in After years, Poland re-emerged as an independent country.
The Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty, as a "minor Entente nation" and the country with the most casualties per capita,    became the backbone of a new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes , later renamed Yugoslavia.
Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. In the British Empire, the war unleashed new forms of nationalism.
It was the first major war in which the newly established countries fought, and it was one of the first times that Australian troops fought as Australians, not just subjects of the British Crown.
After the Battle of Vimy Ridge, where the Canadian divisions fought together for the first time as a single corps, Canadians began to refer to their country as a nation "forged from fire".
Canada entered the war as a Dominion of the British Empire and remained so, although it emerged with a greater measure of independence.
Lobbying by Chaim Weizmann and fear that American Jews would encourage the United States to support Germany culminated in the British government's Balfour Declaration of , endorsing creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
These continue to be problematic in the 21st-century struggles for national identity. The prestige of Germany and German things in Latin America remained high after the war but did not recover to its pre-war levels.
Germany lost The Australian prime minister, Billy Hughes , wrote to the British prime minister, Lloyd George , "You have assured us that you cannot get better terms.
I much regret it, and hope even now that some way may be found of securing agreement for demanding reparation commensurate with the tremendous sacrifices made by the British Empire and her Allies.
Diseases flourished in the chaotic wartime conditions. In alone, louse-borne epidemic typhus killed , in Serbia. The social disruption and widespread violence of the Russian Revolution of and the ensuing Russian Civil War sparked more than 2, pogroms in the former Russian Empire, mostly in Ukraine.
In the aftermath of World War I, Greece fought against Turkish nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal , a war that eventually resulted in a massive population exchange between the two countries under the Treaty of Lausanne.
World War I began as a clash of 20th-century technology and 19th-century tactics , with the inevitably large ensuing casualties.
By the end of , however, the major armies, now numbering millions of men, had modernised and were making use of telephone, wireless communication ,  armoured cars , tanks ,  and aircraft.
Infantry formations were reorganised, so that man companies were no longer the main unit of manoeuvre; instead, squads of 10 or so men, under the command of a junior NCO, were favoured.
Artillery also underwent a revolution. In , cannons were positioned in the front line and fired directly at their targets. By , indirect fire with guns as well as mortars and even machine guns was commonplace, using new techniques for spotting and ranging, notably aircraft and the often overlooked field telephone.
Germany was far ahead of the Allies in using heavy indirect fire. Much of the combat involved trench warfare, in which hundreds often died for each metre gained.
The Germans employed the Haber process of nitrogen fixation to provide their forces with a constant supply of gunpowder despite the British naval blockade.
The large number of head wounds caused by exploding shells and fragmentation forced the combatant nations to develop the modern steel helmet, led by the French, who introduced the Adrian helmet in It was quickly followed by the Brodie helmet , worn by British Imperial and US troops, and in by the distinctive German Stahlhelm , a design, with improvements, still in use today.
Quick, boys! Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.
The widespread use of chemical warfare was a distinguishing feature of the conflict. Gases used included chlorine, mustard gas and phosgene.
Relatively few war casualties were caused by gas,  as effective countermeasures to gas attacks were quickly created, such as gas masks.
The use of chemical warfare and small-scale strategic bombing as opposed to tactical bombing were both outlawed by the Hague Conventions of and , and both proved to be of limited effectiveness,  though they captured the public imagination.
The most powerful land-based weapons were railway guns, weighing dozens of tons apiece. The British and the French sought a solution with the creation of the tank and mechanised warfare.
The British first tanks were used during the Battle of the Somme on 15 September Mechanical reliability was an issue, but the experiment proved its worth.
Meanwhile, the French introduced the first tanks with a rotating turret, the Renault FT , which became a decisive tool of the victory.
The conflict also saw the introduction of light automatic weapons and submachine guns , such as the Lewis Gun , the Browning Automatic Rifle , and the Bergmann MP Another new weapon, the flamethrower , was first used by the German army and later adopted by other forces.
Although not of high tactical value, the flamethrower was a powerful, demoralising weapon that caused terror on the battlefield. Trench railways evolved to supply the enormous quantities of food, water, and ammunition required to support large numbers of soldiers in areas where conventional transportation systems had been destroyed.
On the Western Front neither side made impressive gains in the first three years of the war with attacks at Verdun, the Somme, Passchendaele, and Cambrai—the exception was Nivelle's Offensive in which the German defence gave ground while mauling the attackers so badly that there were mutinies in the French Army.
In the Germans smashed through the defence lines in three great attacks: Michael, on the Lys, and on the Aisne, which displayed the power of their new tactics.
The Allies struck back at Soissons , which showed the Germans that they must return to the defensive, and at Amiens; tanks played a prominent role in both these assaults, as they had the year before at Cambrai.
The areas in the East were larger. In a series of attacks along with the Bulgarians they occupied Serbia, Albania, Montenegro and most of Romania.
The Allies successes came later in Palestine , the beginning of the end for the Ottomans, in Macedonia, which drove the Bulgarians out of the war, and at Vittorio Veneto, the final blow for the Austro-Hungarians.
Germany deployed U-boats submarines after the war began. Alternating between restricted and unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic, the Kaiserliche Marine employed them to deprive the British Isles of vital supplies.
The deaths of British merchant sailors and the seeming invulnerability of U-boats led to the development of depth charges , hydrophones passive sonar , , blimps, hunter-killer submarines HMS R-1 , , forward-throwing anti-submarine weapons , and dipping hydrophones the latter two both abandoned in Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily by the Italians in Libya on 23 October during the Italo-Turkish War for reconnaissance, soon followed by the dropping of grenades and aerial photography the next year.
By , their military utility was obvious. They were initially used for reconnaissance and ground attack. To shoot down enemy planes, anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft were developed.
Strategic bombers were created, principally by the Germans and British, though the former used Zeppelins as well.
Manned observation balloons , floating high above the trenches, were used as stationary reconnaissance platforms, reporting enemy movements and directing artillery.
Balloons commonly had a crew of two, equipped with parachutes ,  so that if there was an enemy air attack the crew could parachute to safety.
At the time, parachutes were too heavy to be used by pilots of aircraft with their marginal power output , and smaller versions were not developed until the end of the war; they were also opposed by the British leadership, who feared they might promote cowardice.
Recognised for their value as observation platforms, balloons were important targets for enemy aircraft. To defend them against air attack, they were heavily protected by antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft; to attack them, unusual weapons such as air-to-air rockets were tried.
Thus, the reconnaissance value of blimps and balloons contributed to the development of air-to-air combat between all types of aircraft, and to the trench stalemate, because it was impossible to move large numbers of troops undetected.
The Germans conducted air raids on England during and with airships, hoping to damage British morale and cause aircraft to be diverted from the front lines, and indeed the resulting panic led to the diversion of several squadrons of fighters from France.
All German survivors were summarily executed by Baralong ' s crew on the orders of Lieutenant Godfrey Herbert , the captain of the ship.
The shooting was reported to the media by American citizens who were on board the Nicosia , a British freighter loaded with war supplies, which was stopped by U just minutes before the incident.
On 24 September, Baralong destroyed U- 41 , which was in the process of sinking the cargo ship Urbino. According to Karl Goetz, the submarine's commander, Baralong continued to fly the US flag after firing on U and then rammed the lifeboat—carrying the German survivors, sinking it.
Only 24 of the medical personnel, patients, and crew survived. Survivors reported that the U-boat surfaced and ran down the lifeboats, machine-gunning survivors in the water.
The U-boat captain, Helmut Patzig , was charged with war crimes in Germany following the war, but escaped prosecution by going to the Free City of Danzig , beyond the jurisdiction of German courts.
After the war, the German government claimed that approximately , German civilians died from starvation and disease during the war because of the Allied blockade.
All food consigned to Germany through neutral ports was to be captured and all food consigned to Rotterdam was to be presumed consigned to Germany.
The German army was the first to successfully deploy chemical weapons during the Second Battle of Ypres 22 April — 25 May , after German scientists working under the direction of Fritz Haber at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute developed a method to weaponize chlorine.
The effect of poison gas was not limited to combatants. Civilians were at risk from the gases as winds blew the poison gases through their towns, and they rarely received warnings or alerts of potential danger.
In addition to absent warning systems, civilians often did not have access to effective gas masks. An estimated ,—, civilian casualties were caused by chemical weapons during the conflict and tens of thousands more along with military personnel died from scarring of the lungs, skin damage, and cerebral damage in the years after the conflict ended.
Many commanders on both sides knew such weapons would cause major harm to civilians but nonetheless continued to use them.
British Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig wrote in his diary, "My officers and I were aware that such weapons would cause harm to women and children living in nearby towns, as strong winds were common in the battlefront.
However, because the weapon was to be directed against the enemy, none of us were overly concerned at all. The war damaged chemistry's prestige in European societies, in particular the German variety.
The ethnic cleansing of the Ottoman Empire's Armenian population, including mass deportations and executions, during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is considered genocide.
The Armenians were intentionally marched to death and a number were attacked by Ottoman brigands. Other ethnic groups were similarly attacked by the Ottoman Empire during this period, including Assyrians and Greeks , and some scholars consider those events to be part of the same policy of extermination.
The German invaders treated any resistance—such as sabotaging rail lines—as illegal and immoral, and shot the offenders and burned buildings in retaliation.
In addition, they tended to suspect that most civilians were potential francs-tireurs guerrillas and, accordingly, took and sometimes killed hostages from among the civilian population.
The German army executed over 6, French and Belgian civilians between August and November , usually in near-random large-scale shootings of civilians ordered by junior German officers.
The German Army destroyed 15,—20, buildings—most famously the university library at Louvain —and generated a wave of refugees of over a million people.
The Long War Journal. August 24, Retrieved August 27, NBC News. July 3, Retrieved February 18, George W. Bush gambled on surging thousands more troops to the embattled country.
It paid off. Al-Qaeda in Iraq is now a diminished force without territory. Tucker December 14, Army Times. Retrieved January 20, National Review Online.
Archived from the original on August 26, Retrieved August 2, Department of State. February 5, Retrieved November 26, Retrieved May 16, UN News.
April 18, Retrieved April 18, The Journal. December 15, Retrieved January 14,
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